Extraction and Processing of Battery Materials

Lithium-based batteries (LBs) are being increasingly used in electric vehicles and portable devices (laptops, cell phones). Owing to its high cost (~$28000/Kg) and limited availability in Earth’s crust, recycling of Li from LBs is becoming increasingly more essential. Additionally, other precious metals such as cobalt and nickel which are employed in LBs can also be recovered during recycling to maintain a demand/supply equilibrium. Several battery recycling processes based on pyrometallurgical and/or hydrometallurgical routes are currently used in industries, however only partial recovery of Li has yet been achieved. To address this issue, at PMRL, we are working on a novel LB recycling process which amalgamates fundamental pyrometallurgical separation and refining techniques along with techno-economic assessments.